Accurately predicting the build-up and change of the snow stratigraphy across scales of a few square meters to landscapes covering several km 2 is important for climate change adaptation and the development of the Arctic. It will also help to ensure the safety of humans, livestock, and agriculture and will be critical for developing an early warning system for a snow disaster. The study will explore the impacts of changing snow depth and dynamics on mortality and the behavior of reindeer and lemmings, as well as on snow pathogens. In particular, the article will evaluate the accuracy of the BP-ANN model for an early warning of a snow disaster.
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Impacts of changing snowmelt dynamics on snow-pathogens for humans, livestock, and agriculture
Changing snowmelt dynamics will affect many sectors of society. However, the full extent of the impacts is still unknown. Governments play a vital role in raising awareness and implementing their adaptation capacities. In addition to impacts on mountain regions, impacts on downstream communities are also likely.
One of the most important impacts on mountain regions is the decline of snow coverage. This has resulted in losses of both water and energy. Other impacts include landslides and avalanches, as well as reduced economic output. The increased frequency of freeze-thaw cycles likely exacerbates these effects.
The change in snow cover is also expected to affect hydropower production in certain regions. The melting of glaciers may also have implications for water-induced natural hazards.
Impacts of changing snow depth on mortality and dynamics of reindeer and lemming
Changing snow conditions have negatively affected the state of reindeer and their access to forage. This has affected the livelihoods of Arctic residents and commercial forestry. Understanding the effects of these changes will help inform future decision-making.
The study was conducted to gather scientific knowledge on how climate, snow depth, and vegetation have affected the dynamics of reindeer and lemming. A targeted literature review was carried out. The keywords were used: reindeer, lemming, mountain birch, lichen, moth outbreaks, and climate.
The study found that lemming population peaks have decreased over time. This is probably related to the increasing autumn precipitation in the previous year. In addition, the number of juveniles reduced year after year.